The History of English Printing, in Books

I've been reading about the history of printing in England recently. I jumped in about 150 years late with the Wither project, so I'm going back to the start and working from there.

It all started when I got a copy of Bowyer's History & Origin of Printing. It's not a rare book, but it's not common either. I found one in what looks like a late 19th/early 20th century quarter leather binding, tightback, very well done, unsigned, priced at about one-third of what seems to be the book's going price. It essentially is a reprint of an earlier publication - Middleton's A Dissertation Concerning the Origin of Printing in England (1735) - and the first English version of Meermam's Origines typographicae (1765; not exactly a translation of the original's Latin, more like a condensed version), each appended with comments and notes by Bowyer, a prominent London printer. It also includes an appendix on early Hebrew printing in England (I bought it while working on the Griffo project, hence the interest in Hebrew printing).

The problem is that reading about the introduction of printing to England quickly becomes entwined with a debate over who actually invented what we call printing. Sigh. 

The central thesis of Middleton's book is an argument that Caxton was Englands first printer; it was a question at the time due to a book published in Oxford that had dropped an X from the publication date, thus appearing to predate Caxtons first publication. Middletons essay begins with reference to a pamphlet by one Richard Atkyns, published in 1664, in which he refers to the “Lambeth manuscript,” which lays out the details of how the first book was printed in Oxford. 

So before I could get too far into Middleton, I needed to find a copy of Atkyns’ pamphlet. Nothing online, either for sale or digitized. However, it had been reprinted, apparently only once since 1664, in A Pair on Printing (Bird & Bull Press, 1982). It
s one of Henry Morriss more modest publications. Turns out I have a copy, purchased when Wessel & Lieberman were closing, but I'd never really opened it. It reprints the Atkyns pamphlet in facsimile, which is unfortunate because the original, like much English printing of the time, is not very lovely, and the facsimile seems to make it even worse. The whole thing would have been more engaging if Henry had set it in type. 

Anyway, I made my way through that, and then returned to Middleton. Like Bowyer, his pamphlet is uncommon but not rare, and not too dear when found (three figures, not four). I found one quite inexpensive because (1) it was disbound and some sheets had become separated, and (2) some monster had cropped out the small (& not terribly interesting; see above) engraving that appeared on the title page. I just wanted to see and read the original, so I wasn
t fussed. 

The title page actually had been neatly repaired (and I like old paper repairs), and reconstituting the sheets and putting them in a  case was simple enough. I even had some 17th century laid paper that matched well, for the endsheets. 

I wont ruin the story, but Middleton's main point was that no one had ever been able to actually find the Lambeth MS, and in fact there were reasons to believe Atkyns had made the whole story up. 

Now I was ready to return to Bowyer, and see what he had to say about Middleton
s argument. It gets in the deep weeds pretty quick, and his comments have references to Meermams essay, so I jumped over to skim that. His central thesis was that the invention of printing with type originated at Haarlem with Laurens Coster. This led to the Coster v Gutenberg bun-fight that raged through the 19th century, which is recounted in a chapter of William Blades Books in Chains (1892), so I got lost down that tributary for a few days. (Im not sure why this set of Meerman sold for so much, it can be had for a tenth the price these days. Perhaps because each volume is bound separately here. Not sure if Large paper actually means a large-paper issue, or just that this copy still has most of its original margins.) 

(For a concise summary of the Mainz/Haarlem debate, see McMurtrie
s Dutch Claims to the Invention of Printing.)
Coming back to the original topic of study - the introduction of printing to Britain - I was led to Ralph Willetts Memoir on the Origin of Printing, which originally appeared in the journal Archaeologia (Volume 11, 1792). That volume also included his "Observations on the Origin of Printing." The Memoir was reprinted by S. Hodgson, Newcastle, 1818 in what looks like 16mo, set in a crisp Brevier roman, well printed (with a handpress) on laid paper, and in an edition of just 32 copies (although this is not stated). It was reprinted by Hodgson in 1820 in an edition of 150 copies. The latter is not uncommon. I found a copy of the 1818 printing, and suspect the sellers pricing was influenced to my benefit by the number of 1820 copies online (this number appears to have drastically declined in the past three months, to one). 

In the Memoir Willett mounts a thorough refutation of the Lambeth MS story, points out various flaws in the arguments of Bowyer and Meerman, and weighs in with his vote for Mainz as the origin for printing with type. Unfortunately he also stumps for Oxfords primacy, based solely on the printed date, so he got that one wrong. 

To find a definitive answer to this Oxford/Caxton question, I tracked down a copy of The Early Oxford Press 1468-1640 (1895). Appendix A, p. 247 makes short work of the debate: it was a typo, should have been 1478, Caxton wins. I knew that, I just needed a reference to quote if ever I encountered a Costerian, as Blades called them. Most of The Early Oxford Press is a straightforward bibliography of publications, but the appendices at the back make for interesting reading, along with a handful of reproductions and three sewn-in leaves from 17th century books printed at Oxford! All 16mo in size. The book doesnt have a colophon, but the note below appears at the bottom of the List of Illustrations page:

There is no number in my copy, but each of the leaves is penciled 688, so I’m guessing maybe that
s the copy number. The content of the leaves appear to correspond with the titles. The wording suggests there might be copies outside the 700, without leaves, but even in 1895 I suspect 700 copies was enough to meet demand for this title. Maybe the publisher was hoping for a second edition. 

This wandering among sources and references also led me to a piece of ephemera from the Vale Press, Famous Woodcut Illustrations of the Fifteenth & Early Sixteenth Centuries (1897). Ricketts was too much a fan of the Morris aesthetic for my taste, but this is a lovely piece of handpress printing, my copy folded (8 pp.) and sewn but uncut at the head. Its a guide to an exhibition Hacon & Ricketts mounted. 

One history of English printing I dont have, and probably wont get, is Palmer's General History of Printing (1732). When found its priced an order of magnitude above the books mentioned here, and from what Ive read, it does not tempt. Interesting that it does not seem to ever have been reprinted. 

Im also reading Colin Clairs A History of Printing in Britain (1965), which skates along at a higher level than Middleton, Bowyer and Willett. I have no idea where all this is going. Im finding it all fascinating, but what I enjoy most are the books themselves. 
This maybe is news only to me, but I found a great bibliosite, Architectures of the Book. Interesting & well-written articles on esoteric topics like grangerizing (an HM favorite). And Canadian no less - go Huskies!


Cobden-Sanderson Finally Got Dressed

When Will Rueter published Majesty, Order & Beauty in 2007, I requested a set of sheets and he kindly sent them. I wanted to put my own binding on the book. I don’t know why. 

Among 100+ books published by Will, this is one of Aliquandos high spots. It combines all the things that characterize his work: color, artfully arranged type, lovely papers plus his own wood engravings.

There should be a special place in Hell for people who ask for a set of sheets and then never bind them. If it exists I was headed for that place until this past week. The printing side of things at HM is on hiatus for a few months so Im catching up on various binding and box-making chores, starting with Wills book. 

m glad I didnt bind it until now. My initial plan had been to sew it on vellum slips laced into a limp case of Reg Lissels “vellum” paper, which is made from over-beaten abaca. It feels like vellum, is hypersensitive to moisture like vellum, and is almost as tough. But in truth I knew this really wasnt the right type of binding for this book, and I just didnt feel equal to the task. So the sheets sat in a box. 

Over the past five years – since Aurora Teardrops – Ive been focusing more on my binding (i.e. casing) skills, and theyve come along, enough that I felt ready for Wills sheets. 

s book featured spectacular gold endpapers that had been created by his great-uncle c.1900. (I think they're printed but they might be stencilled.) The endpapers dictated all the other parts of the case. 

I like simple paper-over-boards cases, but from a strength and longevity perspective, they
re really only appropriate for slimmer books. Majesty, Order & Beauty consisted of five signatures, each four pages, plus the endsections; it needed stronger joints than just paper. 

Im not a fan of most quarter cases, particularly the type where the spine covering attaches to the outside of the boards. Whenever possible, I prefer a rounded spine.* So, for Wills book, I needed something for the spine, and something for the boards. 

ve been enjoying painting papers to use for cases. I decided to make something gold for Majesty, Order & Beauty. I started with a sheet of yellow Guarro laid, and applied a dilute wash of black acrylic. With this & each subsequent wash, I let it set for a few minutes, and then dabbed the brush all over the sheet, creating a mottled effect. After the black dried, I applied two washes of gold (not metallic), then added a bit of red to the gold and applied a final wash. A subtle compliment to the bold endpapers. 

Another thing I don
t like are tipped-on endpapers. Theyre lazy and add no strength to the binding. For Majesty, Order & Beauty I hinged the folded endpaper sheet around a white sheet which became the sections center through which I would sew (below)

I sewed the sheets on tapes of Reg
s abaca vellum, and made endbands from offcuts of the endpapers. Before glueing up the spine I "gilded" the head with (metallic) gold ink applied with a stiff brush. I then gave the spine a slight round, applied rice paste and lined it with thin Japanese paper. 

To make the case I lined the outer faces of each board with a plain sheet, and then adhered the cover sheet (there will be two sheets adhered to the inner face, so I want two on the outer, to balance the pull), folding in just the spine edge. 

I then made the spine, laminating several sheets of 200 g watercolor paper together and rounding it as it dried. This was glued into the black abaca spine cover and dried flat. 

The inside edge of each board is then attached to the spine cover, allowing a 0.25-inch joint, and pressed very hard. The portion of the board left exposed is then lined with a sheet of thickness
equal to the spine cover (I used more of the yellow Guarro), to make the inside of the board flat. The remaining three edges of each board are then turned in, and the case is left in the press over night. 

I fit the case around the text block to ensure my measurements were correct (I like a square of not much more than 1/16-inch) and give it a nip between boards.

Then it
s just a matter of glueing out the pastedowns and attaching the boards.

I pondered printing the title directly on the abaca spine in gold, but the printer
s busted and wont work again for a few months, and I didnt want to put this off, so Ill set and print a small label when things are working again.  

And just for fun, since I seem to have miscellaneous Doves Press leaves lying around everywhere, I stuck one into my unique copy of Wills wonderful book.  

(* I think too many printers fail to take advantage of their binders expertise when planning a book, particularly in deciding how many sheets per section – they opt for fewer thick sections, when more thin ones would give the binder more control in shaping the spine. Thats not the case with Will, who does his own binding, its just something Ive seen too often. Talk to your binder early & often!)


Ernst Ludwig’s Handpresse Has Soul

No news from the studio, the lull between projects, so here's a short addition to the Handpress Library – the Ernst Ludwig Presse. 

I was introduced to the press in late 2019 when a friend showed me a book in a stunning binding. Bannfluch Gegen Spinoza – the ban on Spinoza, the text of the 1656 excommunication of Spinoza from the Talmud Torah congregation of Amsterdam. The type, design and printing are as purely typographic, and simple, as Cobden-Sanderson could ever have wanted, which isn
t a coincidence. 

Ernst Ludwig Presse was started in 1907 by the brothers Friedrich and Christian Kleukens, and named for its patron, Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig von Hessen. Bromer Booksellers has called it the “first truly private German press of the 20th century” (Cat. 139), modelling its work and publishing after the Doves Press. A comprehensive biography of Christian at germandesigners.net tells us “Christian was responsible for typesetting and printing, Friedrich for the typography and book design and decoration. When Friedrich left in 1914, Christian took over sole responsibility for the Press.”

A listing for the press’s edition of Faust (two volumes, 1922-3) from Sophie Schneideman, seller of interesting and fine books, states “there were four types which were created by Friedrich Kleukens for the press, namely Kleukens-Antiqua, Kleukens-Fraktur, Ingeborg-Antiqua and Helga-Antiqua” although these were not proprietary faces per se: each was issued by Stempel. Sophie
s listing referenced Julius Rodenbergs Deutsche Pressen (1925), which I may have to track down, even though my German is non-existent. 

(I took German for a year in high school. The teacher had been a British Army intelligence officer during WW II. One kid in class was particularly adept at getting him to start telling war stories [in English], hence my lack of functional German.)

I haven
t been able to find a bibliography of the press, and dont know how many titles it published. It seems to have ended in 1940 (makes sense). The only non-German title Ive found is a seven-volume set of Shakespeare plays (& the sonnets), published between 1925 and 1931 in editions (mostly) of 250 copies. 

The plan had been to publish a total of 16 volumes, but as private presses have discovered before & after Ernst Ludwig, interest in yet another “finely printed” complete works of Wm S. rapidly declines after the first few titles are issued. When I was first digging into the presss history, a complete set of the seven volumes in sheets was on offer for about $100 per title, but I hesitated and its now long gone. There are a couple of sets listed starting at $3,000. 

Ernst Ludwig Presse books are not uncommon today, and they often are very reasonably priced for the quality of the work and materials. One title that might be somewhat scarce is the original (1926) issue of a short history on the handpress, written by Christian and issued in an edition of 125 copies. The essay itself doesn
t tell you anything you wouldn't already know if you're interested in handpresses, but its a lovely piece of setting and printing. It also appeared in a 1926 issue of Das Inselschiff, possibly before the book publication. A second edition was printed the following year, for the Gutenberg Society, adding 8 plates (one listing describes them as woodcuts) of different presses. This edition may also have been limited to 125 copies, its unclear from the listings I’ve seen. It sounds like it may have been printed from the same setting, and issued in the same simple paper-over-boards binding. If it is the same setting, printed on their handpress, its certainly the more desirable state to own. Ive ordered a copy & will report back. 

Its interesting that Kleukens, like his peer Hans Mardersteig, and like Morris and Cobden-Sanderson, considered the handpress to be central to the aesthetic of fine printing. I guess I do as well, at least from the perspective of the printer. Kleukens short monograph ends with this sentence (apologies for the rough translation):

With the handpress, the individual remains decisive; the printer determines the failure of each individual print. His prints have soul, they are alive.

One of the last things that turned up while digging into the Kleukens work was The Vessel of the Spirit: Thoughts on Book Typography, a translation from ChristianDie Kunst Gutenbergs (1943 and 51), printed by none other than our friend Will Rueter, proving once again that when I think Im finding new things, Wills footsteps are already all over the floor.

Heres the plan for 2021: between now and summer Im going to be working on getting a couple of projects ready for the press. In the summer Ill be printing the new collaboration from Barbara Hodgson and Claudia Cohen, tentatively titled Paper Botanists. It will be the debut publication from Barbara’s imprint, Byzantium (planned for 2022). After that I probably will print a checklist of HMs publications 2000 ­­­– 2020. I have to decide if anyone, including me, cares enough to make the effort. I want to find a few more texts from the 17th and 18th centuries related to the history of printing that havent been published in English. Like the appendices in Fragments & Glimpses. Well see what turns up.


Presents for the Printer (Pt. 3)

Last post on this topic for a while. Found under the tree last Xmas morning: the two-volume large-paper set of The Annals of Scottish Printing (1890). I can spend hours with books like this. Vol. 1 is largely based on the original work of Robert Dickson, prepared for publication here by John Philip Edmond, who completed the project and wrote the chapters in Vol. 2.  

Vol. 1 has numerous facsimile reproductions from blocks made for Dickson; unfortunately Edmond didn't have the energy or means to repeat this in his volume, which contains very few illustrations. 

I'm generally not a fan of buckram, but this set is attractively bound in a tan variety, sewn on cords and laced-on boards. Haven't found a watermark yet, but the printing is typical for the better types of these books from the time. 

One of the problems for printers publishing a book about printing is, they're printing had better be more than adequate. Also under the tree was Early Nottingham Printers & Printing, printed for private circulation by Thomas Forman & Sons in 1942. A loose sheet laid in at the front shows a family tree for this firm going back to 1710. 

The text is printed, indifferently and inconsistently, on Arnold Unbleached paper, a mouldmade wove sheet. The facsimiles, however, are well printed. The type bears some resemblance to Cochin, and might look attractive if better printed. The italic is fun. Despite my production complaints, this also is exactly the kind of book I can get lost in. Thanks Santa.




Thanks to all for everything. HM


Presents for the Printer (Pt 2)

I'm actually doing some printing this week, so we'll keep the post brief. Look what Frankie Griffo got me! 

He's swell. There actually aren't many Ashendene books that tempt me, but this is one that does. I read it aloud in the studio, like Otto in “A Fish Called Wanda.” Cheers FG!

I intend to start making more use of the small Albion handpress, which requires getting some new gear, starting with a different tool for inking. The roller I use on the Washington is too large. Anything has to come from Takach, the only place to get a roller or brayer. I settled on an 8-inch 60-dur brayer. wuhoo. More on all that in the new year. I also got some (different) letterpress inks from Takach, which I'll be reporting on. 

Six years ago, a Montreal musician who records under the name Phoenix York issued his debut recording, Godspeed Phuong. Unlike a lot of what I listen to, I couldn't compare it to anything else I knew of. Two years later he issued remixes from Godpseed, with a very few CD copies in a custom wood case.
I liked his music and his sense of design very much, and reached out should ever he want to do something book-ish. 

As he worked on his second album, he suggested printing a small collection of poetry as a companion, which sounded fine to me. I'd initially hoped to actually print it, but Griffo & life squeezed away that option, so we had it digitally printed in Victoria on Mohawk Superfine. The allowed us to have more color than I would have wanted to print, and to incorporate reproductions of two etchings Phoenix had made some years prior. I made the wrap (St Armand handmade, painted with two acrylic washes) and printed the title (A Brief Trial Under the Chrome Gods) in blind. The edition was just 25 numbered copies, to be issued with the new album (vinyl), and five HC copies for me. 

The album, Farther Things, had been scheduled for release in April, but... It finally came out this month, and apparently has been doing well (only two copies left as of this posting). I am once again entranced by his music; it picks up where Godspeed left of.

Turns out Will Rueter spent covid lock-down making an incredible new book! I saw a copy this weekend, it is stunning. He's really gone to town with the types, the papers, the designs, everything. An Aliquando high spot. This is kind of pre-publication so I can't say too much; more next month?

Merry merry to all, thanks to those whose kindnesses & interest have sustained. May all 2021 bubbles be in a glass.